The Sumerians

Around 2,000 BC the inhabitants of Mesopotamia were the Sumerians.

The name Mesopotamia means ‘the Land of the Two rivers.' These were the great rives Euphrates and Tigris.

The Southern part of this area is also called in the Bible ‘the land of the Shinar' and the ‘land of the Chaldeans'.

Sumerian Sagas.

Some of the world's earliest writing was done on clay tablets by the Sumerians in a script we now call "cuneiform" - which means, "wedge-shaped".

The Sumerians wrote about their national heroes and their ‘gods'.

The Epic of Gilgamesh.


How we got the Bible

  GRAIN ships from the continent were docked at London. Their cargo was not all it purported to be, however. There was contraband hidden amongst the supplies of wheat.

 It was 1526 and the illegal goods consisted of copies of the New Testament. Church and state held a stranglehold over the minds of men and women. They did not wish the Bible to be read. They did not wish their false teaching and wicked practices to be exposed.


Herod the Great

Herod was born in 73BC and died in 4BC.  Although a practising Jew he was of Arab descent by both father and mother.  His father was Antipater, an Edomite, who supported Pompey when he invaded Palestine and thus began a long and beneficial association with Rome.

Julius Caesar conferred Roman citizenship upon Antipater and made him procurator of Judea in 47BC.  This citizenship would continue for his family and his father made Herod governor of Galilee in 48BC.  Herod became a lifelong friend of Mark Antony, who then made him tetrarch of Galilee.



In Matthew 25 there is a parable of the wise and foolish women with their lamps awaiting the arrival of the bridegroom.  Five take extra oil in case of need and five do not and so are unprepared.



Samaria was a region in ancient Palestine. This was between Galilee to the north and Judea to the south.  It had a boundary in the west of the Mediterranean Sea and on the east, the Jordan River.  It was a mountainous region with many olive trees. The Biblical town of Shechem was in the middle of this area and this was a political centre for the region.

When the Israelites began their conquest of Palestine, they took over some of the hill sites, but the strategical strongholds remained in the hands of the Canaanites, who had control of the region at this time.



Bethlehem is located about 10 Kilometres south west of Jerusalem. It is in the hill country of Judea, and is mentioned in the Bible as being the birthplace of Jesus Christ, according to Matthew 2 and Luke 2. It is an important pilgrim and tourist centre, and is sacred to the three religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.



The Phoenicians have appeared in history as a major seagoing people who used to sail ships that became known as round ships. These were among the first merchant ships designed for cargo and although the Phoenicians were well known for their seamanship, they were renowned for their merchant trading enterprises and the colonies they began along the Mediterranean Sea. These colonies began as trading outposts and the colony at Carthage became a well known empire in its own right at a later date.


Olympic Games

Tradition has it that the first Olympic Games were celebrated in 776BC, although they may have been held earlier as many of the Greek Festivals were.  They were held at Olympia, Greece once every four years. These four-year periods were known as Olympiads and the games were held until the Roman Emperor Theodosis I abolished them around 393AD/394AD.